Sunday, March 23, 2014

Have you appeared for numerous competitive exams? Are you dreaming to get admission in a best college? But, how is this possible when there are lot more students and may be, they have more experience or better marks than you have!

In India, every second parents want their child to become and engineer or doctor. And for that, they want them to get admission in best engineering college. It's little bit difficult, specialy when there is are only 16 IITs and 30 NITs in case of engineering aspirants, along with few other top institutes.

Nearly, 14, 00000 students appeared for the Joint Entrance Exam (JEE). The total number of seats available in IITs and NITs was around 25,370 (IITs- 9885 + NITs- 15485). This means, only 2% of the total applicants who applied for JEE 2013 made it through to the IITs and NITs.

However, it often becomes quite difficult to figure out the perfect coaching institute which can help you in getting prepared.

Here are 10 coaching institutes which you can consider for such competitive exam preparation:

Vibrant Academy
An academy founded to facilitate IIT aspirants, Vibrant has emerged as a strong contender among the top coaching institutes. With a record selection percentage of 43.2% (1243 out of total 2836) from regular classroom courses in the 2013 JEE Advance, the institute has set a benchmark for itself and its competitors. The complete system of coaching is based on real requirements of a student to crack IIT-JEE.

With its foundation in 2001, Resonance has come a long way. With 12 classroom program study centres across the country, 300+ full time faculty members out of which 25% faculty members are from the IITs, and with the highest number of students qualifying for JEE Advance from a single institute in India; this coaching institute has the power to provide future IITians and doctors to the nation.

Bansal Classes 
A pioneer in the coaching industry, Bansal Classes has never failed to prove its worth when it comes to various competitive entrance exams. With two students in Top 10 All India Rankers and 19 in Top 150 All India Rankers in JEE Advance 2013, Bansal Classes is definitely a class apart. Its objective is to provide equal studying opportunities to all students appearing for competitive examinations.

With nearly 4,000 students achieving an All India Rank in JEE (Mains) 2013, and 3,729 students achieving a rank in JEE (Advance), FIITJEE has been a favorite destination for various competitive exams. It provides an ideal launch pad for serious JEE aspirants.

Narayana is the one of the renowned names when it comes to engineering coaching institutes. With centres in 17 major cities including Delhi, the institute offers researched study materials along with experienced teachers. With nearly 400+ selections in JEE Mains and 200+ selections in JEE Advance, this institute never failed to impress students.

Allen Career Institute
Nearly 45,000 student took admissions in classroom courses in Kota in 2012-13 session. With 990 total selections (37 students in top 1000) in JEE Advance 2013, 380 total selections (11 in top 20) in AIIMS 2013 and 23189 total selections (34 in top 100), the success of Allen Career Institute can be easily seen.

Vidya Mandir Classes
Vidya Mandir has made a reputation among IIT aspirants by providing classroom courses in more than 30 cities. With nearly 48 top scorers through classroom course and 9 top scorers through correspondence course in the JEE Advance, Vidya Mandir is definitely worth a thought.

Aakash Institute
Aakash Institute has been quite famous for helping students in realising their dreams of becoming doctors and engineers. A phenomenal centre for excellent coaching, Aakash's students have been delivering astonishing results in various medical and engineering entrance exams. The institute bagged 908 selections in JEE Advanced 2013 and 26657 in NEET- UG 2013.

IITiansPace was established in 1999 with a sole motive to guide students in Mumbai who wanted to get through good Engineering and Medical colleges. In past 15 years, IITiansPace has not only made its mark in Mumbai but has expanded hugely by opening its centres in various cities in India including one centre in Dubai. Students of this institute have not done wonders only in IIT entrance but performed outstandingly in various Olympiads.

Super 30
Fascination towards Mathematics and a will to help economically poor students with IIT dreams paved the way for Super 30. Based in Patna, Super 30 comprises of 30 talented students with a goal to make it big. So far, Super 30's track record has been amazing by delivering 100% success rate as all its 30 students cracked IIT for three consecutive years: 2008, 2009 and 2010.

Bollywood celebrities have been judged several times for their beauty and acting skills. But, there is much more behind that pretty skin and acting talent. Take a look:

1. Preity Zinta: The dimpled beauty of Bollywood and the owner of IPL team Punjab Kings XI, Preity Zinta is a perfect blend of beauty and brains. After completing her graduation in English Hons degree, pretty Preity started a graduate programme in psychology. She also earned a post graduate degree in Criminal Psychology.

Preity once said, "Whenever I came across something that influenced me, I wanted to be that. So it varied from an astronaut, airhostess, army girl, to truck driver. Once, I wanted to be a nun - my mother wanted me to change schools after that".

2. Soha Ali Khan: The girl belonging to the Nawab-of-Pataudi family followed her father's rich education. She attended The British School in New Delhi and Balliol College, Oxford. After which, she went to earn a Masters degree in International Relations from the London School of Economics and Political Science. She worked for the Ford Foundation and Citibank.

She is known for her hits Khoya Khoya Chand in Hindi, Iti Srikanta, and Antarmahal in Bengali.

3. John Abraham: If you too are fooled by his all bulky muscles, you need to know, there exists a lot of knowledge behind that seductive smile. This handsome hunk has studied Economics at the Bombay Scottish School, Mahim in Mumbai and got an MBA degree from the Educational Trust. John had made his appearance for the first time in Bollywood films with Jism in the year 2003.

4. R. Madhavan: Madhavan the actor , writer, film producer and television host has done his graduation in Electronics from Rajaram College, Kolhapur. He had also won the Maharashtra Best Cadet title which allowed him to make a trip to England.
One of the idiots from '3-idiots' also received training with the Royal Army, the Navy and the Air Force. He also went for a public speaking course before joining the film industry.
He won the Indian Championship for Public Speaking and thus was selected to represent India at the Young Businessmen Conference in Tokyo, Japan in 1992.

5. Riteish Deshmukh: The son of ex-chief minister of Maharashtra, the late Vilasrao Deshmukh, has earned an architectural degree from Kamla Raheja Vidyanidhi Institute for Architecture and Environmental Studies. For over a year, he practiced with an overseas architectural firm. After he returned to India, he continued designing. Besides being an actor, he owns 'Evolutions', which is an India-based architectural and interior designing firm. Sound so cool just like his personality.

6. Siddharth Suryanarayanan: The adorable Siddharth of Rang De Basanti is one of the most educated stars in Bollywood. He has been a president of his college's debating society. He was also popular as a part of its reputed theatre group. He also completed his MBA from S.P. Jain Institute of Management and Research.

7. Vidya Balan: With her laal-padd sari beautifully adorned to befit her role of a Bengali bride in her debut film PARINEETA, her very first step completely left all astounded.
The actress from Dirty Picture holds a major in sociology. After the completion of her schooling St. Anthony's Girls' High School, Chembur, Vidya earned her major in sociology from St. Xavier's, Mumbai. Other than that, she also possesses MA from University of Mumbai.


Saturday, March 22, 2014

Prasar Bharati is recruiting for the post of Section Officer, Private Secretary and Assistant among others on deputation basis. Last date to send in job applications is 45 days within publication of the notification.

Vacancy details:
Name of Department: Prasar Bharti, National Broadcasting Department, Delhi Government

Deputy Director of Administration: 8 posts
Section Officer: 28 posts
Private Secretary: 34 posts
Assistant: 7 posts
Personal Assistant: 43 posts
Number of vacancies: 120

Eligibility criteria:

The applicant should hold a graduate degree in relevant discipline from a recognized institution. Also, the candidate should not be more than 56 years of age as on April 30, 2014.

Age relaxation is applicable as per government norms.

Selection process:
The applicants will be selected for the post on the basis of their performance in the personal interview.

How to apply:
Interested and eligible candidates can download the application form from Prasar Bharti's official website:

The candidates have to register by sending in their duly filled application forms along with required documents to:
The Deputy Direcctor (Personnel),
Prasar Bharti Secretariat 2nd Floor PTI Building,
Parliament Street,
New Delhi-110001

Important dates:
Date of notification/ advertisement: March 14, 2014
Last date to receive application: Within 45 days of notification


Wednesday, March 12, 2014

इंटरनेट की बढ़ती पहुंच और युवाओं के बीच ऑनलाइन शॉपिंग की बढ़ती लोकप्रियता के बीच ई-कॉमर्स कंपनी फ्लिपकार्ट के जरिए सालाना बिक्री का आंकड़ा 1 अरब डॉलर (करीब 6,100 करोड़ रुपये) पार कर गया है। कंपनी ने एक साल पहले ही यह लक्ष्य हासिल कर लिया। लेकिन क्या आप जानते हैं इस बिक्री के पीछे कितनी बड़ी राशि को निवेश किया गया था।

सचिन बसंल और बिन्नी दोनों ने लगातार 18 माह तक पहले परिजनों से प्रति माह 10,000 रुपये लेकर ई-कॉमर्स वेबसाइट शुरू की थी जहां वह किताबों की बिक्री करते थे। फ्लिपकार्ट ने वर्ष 2015 तक 1 अरब डॉलर का आंकड़ा छूने का लक्ष्य रखा था। फ्लिपकार्ट के सह-संस्थापकों, सचिन बंसल और बिन्नी बंसल की तरफ से जारी बयान में कहा गया, 'मार्च, 2011 में हमने घोषणा की थी कि हम 2015 तक एक अरब डॉलर का आंकड़ा छूना चाहते हैं। उस समय हमारा रन रेट एक करोड़ डॉलर का था। आज हमें यह घोषणा करते हुए गर्व हो रहा है कि हमने 1 अरब डॉलर का रन रेट लक्ष्य से एक साल पहले हासिल कर लिया है।'

ऑनलाइन बुक स्टोर से शुरुआतफ्लिपकार्ट ने ऑनलाइन बुक स्टोर के रूप में शुरुआत की थी। अब यह फैशन और इलेक्ट्रॉनिक्स समेत कई क्षेत्रों के उत्पाद बेचती है। कंपनी ने फ्रिज, वॉशिंग मशीन और फर्निचर जैसी चीजें भी बेचनी शुरू कर दी है।

मार्केटप्लस मॉडलकंपनी मार्केटप्लेस मॉडल के रूप में भी परिचालन करती है, जिसके तहत यह रिटेलरों को उत्पाद अपने प्लेटफॉर्म के जरिए बेचने की सुविधा देती है। कंपनी ने पिछले साल निजी इक्विटी कोष से 36 करोड़ डॉलर जुटाए थे। यह ई-कॉमर्स क्षेत्र में अपनी तरह का सबसे बड़ा सौदा है।

ऑनलाइन ग्राहक 2 करोड़एक अनुमान के मुताबिक देश में फिलहाल इंटरनेट इस्तेमाल करने वाले लोगों की तादाद 20 करोड़ है। इनमें से 2 करोड़ ऑनलाइन शॉपिंग करते हैं।
बादशाहत को चुनौतीदुनिया की सबसे बड़ी ई--कॉमर्स कंपनी अमेजन अमेरिका में ग्राहकों को सीधे माल बेचती है। उसके जरिए दूसरे रिटेलर भी अपने उत्पाद बेच सकते हैं। भारतीय कानून अंतरराष्ट्रीय ऑनलाइन रिटेलरों को मल्टीपल ब्रांड बेचने की इजाजत नहीं देता। अमेजन के पास अपने इस 10वें उपक्रम के लिए बाजार है। अमेजन के लिए भारतीय दांव कई वजहों से बेहद महत्वपूर्ण है।

यहां तीसरे नंबर पर दुनिया में सबसे ज्यादा इंटरनेट इस्तेमाल करने वाले लोग हैं और बड़े पैमाने पर ऑनलाइन रिटेल की संभावना है। पांच खरब डॉलर के रिटेल कारोबार में ऑनलाइन रिटेल का कारोबार करीब 1.25 अरब डॉलर का है। रिटेल कंसल्टेंसी टेक्नोपैक को उम्मीद है कि अगले 10 साल में यह 61 गुना ब़़ढ जाएगा। यह अमेजन प्रमुख बेजोज के लिए सपना सच होने जैसा है।

दूरगामी नजरिया
1990 के दशक की शुरुआत में जब इंटरनेट का इस्तेमाल बढ़ने लगा तब वॉल स्ट्रीट में बैंकर बेजोस ने एक रिपोर्ट पढ़ी, जिसके मुताबिक, कुछ वर्षो में ई-कॉमर्स 2,300 प्रतिशत बढ़ने वाला था। उन्होंने खुद से कहा, 'मैं इसमें अपना हिस्सा चाहता हूं। वे नौकरी छोड़कर न्यूयॉर्क से सिएटल पहुंच गए और 1994 में अपने गैराज से अमेजन की शुरआत की। तब इसका नाम कैडेबरा नाम था।

भारत का माहौल अलगलेकिन, भारतीय माहौल थोड़ा अलग है। देश के ऑनलाइन रिटेल उद्योग में पहले से ही एक कंपनी तेजी से आगे बढ़ रही है। फ्लिपकार्ट सबसे बड़ी घरेलू ई-कॉमर्स कंपनी है, जिसने अमेजन का ही मॉडल अपना लिया है। इसे अमूमन भारत का अमेजन कहा जाता है। (नईदुनिया)

Pen is mightier than the sword. Even today, the younger generation is attracted to journalism. Everyday, there are several events happening across the world - political, cultural, religious, educational, social and natural events, etc. We come to know about these events sitting in our houses. How is that possible? Through mass communication, providing information to a large crowd at the same time. But, for this, someone has to collect the information as well as present it. This is the main aim of journalism. Journalism includes investigating, analysing and reporting local as well as world events, trends, current affairs, and so on.

Journalism courses are offered at graduation and post-graduation levels. To become a journalism , one can complete a Bachelor's in mass communication/ mass media/journalism after +2. After completion in a related graduation field, one may complete a Master's in journalism or mass communication. A graduate (who has a flair for writing) from any other field can also opt for a postgraduate course in journalism.

Also required is command over language, confidence, enthusiasm, patience and perseverance, ability to differentiate between fact and fiction, adhering to deadlines, team cohesiveness, sensitivity to different views and lifestyles, in-depth knowledge about various fields such as politics, culture, religion, social and current affairs. The most important fact is that people generally feel that journalism is all about writing. It is. However, it is also about reading and most importantly, the ability to express one's thoughts on varied topics. Journalism is for people who are ready to explore various opportunities 24/7, without the constraints of cultural upbringing, gender, and are also ready to go beyond geographical boundaries.

Job prospects
There are different categories in which the media industry can be divided - print and electronic. As the name suggests, everything that is printed comes under print media, which includes newspapers, magazines, journals, tabloids, dailies and books. On the other hand, electronic media includes content on television, radio and the internet. With changes in the society, even this field has undergone a radical change. A journalist has to cover stories/ features on various aspects of life i.e. political, financial, leisure, crime, sports, entertainment, spiritual, educational, infrastructure, technological, medical, and so on. Not to forget, along with the newspapers, there has been an increase in the number of magazines too. Specialised magazines are available in the field of fashion, beauty, family, for youth, travel, medical, technological, lifestyle, education, sports, etc. They can be in many languages.

Some of the work opportunities are in the areas of advertising agencies; educational institutes, magazines, news papers, portals/websites of publications, publishing houses, radio channels as well as television channels. While there are opportunities in this field, it is a competitive field. Therefore, one has to perform at the highest level and be able to work under difficult situations. However, if one persists with hard work and passion, a career in journalism can be a fulfilling and lucrative option.

Skills required
• Inquisitive and investigative mind 
• Alertness 
• Adaptive and tolerant of changing and difficult situations 
• Good communication skills


Monday, March 10, 2014

Shimla which is capital of Himachal Pradesh, was also the capital of Britishers (during British rule) is surrounded by mountains from all around. Best places to visit in Shimla:

The Ridge :  The large open space in the heart of town presents excellent view of the mountain ranges. Shimla's landmarks - the Neo-Gothic structure of Christ Church and the new - Tudor Library building is worth seeing.

The Mall : Most of Shimla's landmarks are located here. The Mall further joins the Ridge at the ‘Scandal Point' of Kipling's Shimla, where a statue of the nationalist leader Lala Lajpat Rai has been erected.This is the main shopping centre of Shimla with restaurants. This is especially pleasant in the evenings when the views and lights are wonderful. The Gaiety Theatre, which is a reproduction of an old British theatre is a center of cultural activities. A passenger lift of HPTDC can be taken from the Cart Road and the Mall. Lakkar Bazaar adjacent to the Ridge is popular for its wood-crafts and souvenirs.

Himachal State Museum & Library :  The museum is located 2.5-km west of the scandal point and opens daily except on Mondays and public holidays. It has got a good collection of ancient historical sculptures, paintings, coins, photos and other items from all over the state as well as outside it. It has also got a library, which houses many historical books and manuscripts. Visiting hours are from 10 AM to 5 PM and it is closed on Monday and gazetted holidays.

Indian Institute Of Advanced Studies :  Housed in the former Viceregal Lodge, it was built in 1888. The style of architecture is English Renaissance, the masonry of the walling is light blue limestone and the wrought stonework is done in sandstone in a beautiful light gray tint. It has magnificent lawns.  The entry in the institute is by ticket and only on Sundays the grounds are open for the public.

Summer Hill :  At an altitude of 1,283m, 1 KM from Boilaeuganj.Summer Hill is a picturesque spot on Shimla-Kalka Railway line offering shady walks in quiet surroundings. The Father of Nation, Mahatma Gandhi during his visit to Shimla lived in the elegant Georgian House of Raj Kumari Amrit Kaur located here. HP University is also situated over here.

Potter Hill :   Situated at a distance of 1 Km from Summer Hill is very beautiful Picnic spot with all the natural beauty. Ecological Park is situated here.

Annandale : Beyond the Glen is Annandale, another picnic spot. It is covered with deodar forests and was once the playgrounds of Shimla, where racing, polo and cricket entertained the Britishers.Surrounded by deodar trees, this glade has an ancient temple on the edge.

For more info visit: Shimla Tourism
Much of the Himalayan lands in Himachal have a forest cover that hold a variety of trees, which are not only help to moderate the climate but also protect the environment and enhance the scenic beauty of the hills.

With the onset of summer, Buras also called buransh (Rhododendron) have begun dot the landscapes around the city.

Found growing away in the wild between 1800 and 2800 meters altitude, the red coloured Rhododendron flower was declared the state flower in 2007.

The status has helped in over exploitation of the wild flower, which residents earlier used to harvest relentlessly each summer for making juices, squashes and other beverages.

A walk through the woods around Himachal Pradesh University, around the localities of Bharari, Taradevi, Jakhu forest roads and Sanjauli are prized these days because of the large number of trees in bloom.

Tourists who notice these flowering trees are eager to get themselves photographed in such scenic settings, with some just clicking close up shots of the flowers as memorable moments spent in the hill station.

The Rhododendron flower also hold nutritional and health properties and is used by traditional nature medicine practitioners for curing common colds, asthma, some heart ailments and digestive disorders.

Two years ago, when I for the first time came to Shimla, on a uphill walk to Jakhu temple, when I first got to these flowers of immense beauty up close, the impression was case permanently that I cherish even today.

Himachal state flower Rhododendrn
The walk through a Rhododendron lit forest with my brother, sister, brother in law and their child is one of the first impressions of this city that has held me here.

Birds chirping about and monkeys frolicking among the flowers in these silent sentinels of Shimla, simply add to the beauty of the town that even attracted the mighty rulers of the British Empire, about two centuries ago, to this hill station.


Wednesday, March 5, 2014

A cricket world cup or a parliamentary elections, It’s one and a same thing in India. The only difference is that cricket world cup comes once in four years but election comes once in Five years.

I am just 23 year, which is not mature enough age to write a matured political piece, But few days back one of my friend said a very factual sentence to me about Arvind Kejriwal.

Yes, the same Arwind Kejriwal, the so called Aam Aadmi. My friend said that it hardly matters about goodness or badness of Kejriwal’s tenure as Delhi’s chief minister but at least he left his everything and tested his level to change the system. That’s really appreciable.
Image source: Meri News Photos

Actually I also feel the same thing but now you will not even take a second to judge me as a supporter of Aam Aadmi Party. But wait, it’s not like that.

Kejriwal’s resignation as chief minister was not the solution. He should have faced the situation and should have got back with the solution. But he didn’t.

Well’ that all is past. And now, even Arvind has left the past. Now he is looking forward to his future. Yes, his future, which he calls as nation’s future. Arvind is getting back with the same enthusiasm for Lok Sabha elections.

His party has made the 16th parliamentary elections like an interesting T- 20 match. A kind of tri-series match where three teams are participating in the tournament as  team Modi, team Rahul and team Kejriwal. The winner of this tournament will win the political throne for next five years.

But what is the difference. This tournament comes every year. Hundreds of political parties come; one wins and become the owner of the country for five years. Some of my friends say that even there are some problems in the country but still we have done a lot in the field of development.

Yes, we have done a lot. We are doing much in the field of education, but we are not able to provide good education to everyone. We have roads, but not in a condition to have a comfortable journey. We have reached to space, but we still have a child at road side asking for one rupee because he is hungry. We have industries, but we also have a situation when there are only 100 vacancies and ten Lakhs applicants for those ten vacancies. We have AIIMS kind of hospitals but we also have a situation where every 4th child dies with calories weakness.

Actually we are the best, but at the same time we are the worst.  That’s what we call development. That’s the situation that needs change. Narendra Modi says he will bring that change, Rahul Gandhi says he will bring that change, Arvind also says he will bring that change. But still nothing has changed.

Again the same national event is going to take place in the country which is called ‘Elections’. Now it would have to be seen that will this time the change actually take place or again we will just sit and write this kind of article? It’s up to you.

Go and choose your system, be the part of system…
                                                                                                                 Article by Guest Blogger:
                                                                                                                 DHARAM PRAKASH

Advancement in the technology has made every work easier and less time consuming. The importance of this technology for everyone cannot be denied. In every year this technology changes its shape.

We have electric components like, computer, mobile, tablet, laptop, printers, tv, etc. These are now considered as essential part in day to day life. One cannot think about survive without of these devices. Improper disposal of electronic-waste is arising threat to India and other countries too.

Electronic-waste is all the electrical material which causes dangerous gases while repairing or destroying. E-waste is one of the rapidly growing problems which India is facing these days.  India is facing big boom in this type of waste as technology is changing day by day. People are moving towards new instruments as they suit them.

Image Source: Maghee Bioenergy Consultancy
There are about 90 crores of mobile users and if we also count computers then its counting will cross the boundary. This e-waste is causing problem to environment as people are not aware about its dangers. In e-waste there are about 100 of poisonous things which pollute our environment and water.

There are the poisonous chemicals like Sisa, Para, Cadmium, etc. According to a report on e-waste, India is only recycling 5 percent of its total e-waste. This waste poses a serious health and environment hazards.

In e-waste recycling all companies and government should come together to solve this serious problem. Companies should recall their electrical products which are not in use so that these can be recycled properly.

Consumer too should take responsibility to not to through e-waste here and there. One side India is facing problem like population, shortage of drinking water, malting of glaciers, and so many, other side e-waste is emerging as a threat especially for India.

Proper disposal of e-waste should be done so that we can prevent ourselves from its hazardous.

Saturday, March 1, 2014

The Government on Tuesday setup a four member seventh central pay commission ahead of general elections that are due by May; commission will be headed by former Supreme Court judge Justice Ashok Kumar Mathur. This commission will revise the salary structure of five million central government employees, including those in defence and railways and about three million pensioners.

The Commission has been mandated to submit its report in two years' time and its recommendations would be implemented from January 1, 2016.

Seven pay commissions have been set up on a regular basis to review and make recommendations on the work and pay structure of all civil and military divisions of the Government of India. The Sixth Pay Commission, headed by Justice B.N. Srikrishna was constituted on 5 October 2006. It submitted its report on 24 March 2008, but its recommendations were implemented from 1 January 2006.

The First Pay Commission was established in 1956, and since then the Union government usually appoints a pay commission once in a decade to revise the wages of Union government employees.

History of Pay Commissions in India
First Pay Commission
The First Pay Commission was constituted in May 1946 under the Chairmanship of Sri Srinivasa Varadachariar. Taking inspiration from the Islington Commission Report of 1912 under the Chairmanship of Lord Islington, the concept of living wages meaning that in no case an employee’s wage be less than the living wage, was taken into consideration in formulating the recommendations of the First Pay Commission. The Commission has fixed Rs.55, of which Basic Pay was Rs.30 and DA Rs.25 as the minimum wage. The recommendations were accepted by the Government.

Second Pay Commission
The Second Pay Commission was set up in August 1957 under the Chairmanship of Justice Jagannath Das and the Commission took two years to finalize the report. One of the recommendations of the Commission was that the pay structure and working environment of the government employees should be crafted in such a way as to ensure efficient functioning of the system by recruiting persons with a minimum qualification, which was earlier not followed. The Commission recommended the minimum wage at Rs.80 (Basic Pay Rs.70 and DA Rs.10) per month and reduced the multiple numbers of pay scales.

Third Pay Commission
The Third Pay Commission was set up in April 1970 under the Chairmanship of Justice Raghuvir Dayal. It went beyond the idea of minimum subsistence and added three concepts of inclusiveness, comprehensibility and adequacy for pay structure to be sound in nature as to be attractive to the employees, which, the Commission felt that it would improve the efficiency of functioning of the Government machinery. It recommended the minimum wage at Rs.185 per month and the Government raised it to Rs.196. Pay fixation formula was made more liberal. The Commission gave its report in March 1973.

Fourth Pay Commission
The Fourth Pay Commission was constituted in March 1983 under the Chairmanship of Sri P.N.Singhal. It recommended for creating permanent machinery as part of the administration to undertake periodical review of pay and allowances of the employees. However, it was never implemented by the Government. It recommended for minimum wage of Rs.750. It took four years and submitted the report in three phases. The report was implemented with effect from 01.01.1986.

Fifth Pay Commission
The Fifth Pay Commission was set up in 1994 under the Chairmanship of Justice Ratnavel Pandian. The Commission recommended for fixing the minimum wage at Rs.2550 per month, to further reduce the number of pay scales from 51 to 34 and to slash the government workforce by about 30% with grant of salary hikes to the retained employees. It took 4 years for the Commission to submit its report. During this period, the Government of India was in take-off mode with the concept of LPG (Liberalisation, Privatisation and Globalisation) in its economic reforms, for which it has to look to the World Bank and IMF and thus the World Bank has opened its mouth with criticism on the after effects of the Pay Commission recommendations on the Indian economy.

Sixth Pay Commission
Sixth Pay Commission was set up in July 2006 under the Chairmanship of Justice B.N.Srikrishna with a time frame of 18 months. While formulating pay scales with upward revision and fixing the minimum salary at entry level at Rs.6660 (Basic Pay Rs.4860 and Grade Pay Rs.1800) and maximum at Rs.80000 at Secretary level, the Commission mainly focussed on removing ambiguity in respect of the existing pay scales and, introducing the idea of ‘Pay Bands’, while reducing the number of pay scales. It recommended for removal of Group – D cadre.

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